Home
My Account
About Us
Forum
Contact us
الواجهة العربية
epharmaweb.com
Medical News Medical News
Aricles Articles
Events Events
Guidelines Guidelines
Videos Library Videos Library
Diseases Diseases
Follow us : facebook twitter Digg Linkedin Boxiz
Newsletter

Please select the categories you are intersted in:
News Articles Guidelines Events Videos Journals' abstracts

Latest Subscribers
Advanced Search »



Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Definition


Disease: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Category: Psychiatric diseases
اضغط هنا للقراءة باللغة العربية

Disease Definition:

A traumatic event could trigger post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which is a kind of anxiety disorder. This condition usually takes place when a person witnesses something that results in intense fear, horror or helplessness.


Several people who are involved in traumatic events have a brief period of hard time adjusting and coping. Although Such traumatic responses often improve with time and healthy coping techniques. Sometimes, however, symptoms that might totally disrupt one’s life, either worsen or linger for months if not years.


PTSD might be prevented from becoming a prolonged condition by treating the developed symptoms as soon as possible.

Work Group:


Prepared by: Scientific Section

Symptoms, Causes

Symptoms:

Within three months of a traumatic event, post-traumatic stress signs and symptoms appear. Even though, in a small number of cases, symptoms may not occur until years after the traumatic event.
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder could typically be grouped into three types: Intrusive memories, avoidance and numbing, and emotional arousal or increased anxiety (hyperarousal).
Intrusive memories include symptoms, such as:

 

 

  • Upsetting dreams about the traumatic event
  • Flashbacks, or reliving the traumatic event for minutes or even days at a time

 

Symptoms of avoidance and emotional numbing might include:

 

 

  • Feeling emotionally numb
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Trying to avoid thinking or talking about the traumatic event
  • Difficulty keeping close relationships
  • Avoiding activities that once a person enjoyed
  • Hopelessness about the future
  • Memory problems

 

Anxiety and increased emotional arousal might include the following symptoms:

 

 

  • Self-destructive behavior, like excessive drinking
  • Tough time trying to sleep
  • Irritability or anger
  • Being easily startled or frightened
  • Overwhelming guilt or shame
  • Hearing or seeing nonexistent things


Symptoms of post-traumatic disorder could come and go. More post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms might take place throughout times of higher stress or when experiencing reminders of encountered problems. For example, the instant one hears a car backfire they might recall combat experiences. Or on reading a report on the newspaper about a rape, being reminded of the feeling of horror and fear of one’s own assault.


After a traumatic event, having a wide range of feelings and emotions is quite normal. These feeling might include fear and anxiety, sadness, changes in sleeping, lack of concentration or eating patterns, or bouts of crying easily. Recurrent nightmares might take place or thoughts that might come back about the event. This doesn’t indicate having post-traumatic stress disorder.
In the case of experiencing these disturbing feelings for more than a month, when they’re severe, or when having trouble managing life, consulting a health care professional might be suggested. The only way to help preventing PTSD symptoms from getting worse is to be treated as soon as possible. Sometimes, symptoms of post-traumatic symptoms might be too severe that emergency help might be required, particularly when either thinking about harming oneself or someone else. Asking a supportive family member or friend for help might be beneficial in addition to calling emergency services.

Causes:

Researchers are still trying to better understand what causes someone to get post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder as with most mental diseases is most likely resulted from a complex mix of the following:

 

 

  • Life experiences one has had, such as the amount and severity of trauma they’ve been exposed to starting from their childhood.
  • The way a person’s brain regulates the chemicals and hormones which the body releases in reaction to stress
  • Inherited predisposition to psychiatric diseases, particularly anxiety and depression
  • The inherited factors of the personality, usually known as temperament.




Even though it's not known what causes post-traumatic stress disorder, researchers know certain of the risk factors involved, or whatever might be the reason underlying PTSD.


Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among adults with about 8% of the population experiencing PTSD at some point in their lives; and this condition might affect people of all ages. PTSD is particularly common among those who have served in war, and it’s occasionally known as “shell shock,” “battle fatigue” or “combat stress.”
PTSD is four times more likely to occur in women than in men. Experts believe that's because women are at increased risk of experiencing the kinds of interpersonal violence — such as sexual violence — most likely to lead to PTSD.


Kinds of Traumatic Events
In men, the most common events leading to the development of PTSD include:

 

 

  • Rape
  • Childhood neglect and physical abuse
  • Combat exposure


The following traumatic events most frequently are accompanied by PTSD in women:

 

 

  • Being threatened with a weapon
  • Rape
  • Physical attack
  • Childhood physical abuse
  • Sexual molestation


Though several other traumatic events additionally can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder, such as fire, mugging, assault, plane crash, torture, natural disaster, robbery, kidnapping, car accident, civil conflict, life- threatening medical diagnosis, terrorist attack and other extreme or life-threatening events.


Increasing Risk
Post-traumatic stress disorder doesn’t necessarily occur when having these kinds of traumatic events. Certain factors increase the risk of PTSD after a traumatic event, such as:

 

 

  • Having an existing mental health condition.
  • Lacking a good support system of family and friends.
  • Having been abused or neglected as a child.
  • The traumatic event is particularly severe or intense
  • Having first-degree relatives with PTSD.
  • Having first-degree relatives with depression.
  • The traumatic event was long lasting.

Complications

Complications:

A person’s life could be completely disrupted by post-traumatic stress disorder; one’s job, relationships and even the enjoyment of everyday activities.


The following are other mental health problems increasing the risk of PTSD as well:

 

 

  • Drug abuse
  • Depression
  • Suicidal thoughts and actions
  • Eating disorders
  • Alcohol abuse


Studies of war veterans also have demonstrated a link between PTSD and the development of medical diseases, such as:

 

 

  • Chronic pain
  • Musculoskeletal conditions
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid disease


In order to understand the relationship between PTSD and physical health problems, more research is required.

Treatments:

With successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder that could be most helpful in regaining a sense of control over a person’s life, one could feel better about oneself and learn ways to cope in case symptoms recur.
Post-traumatic stress disorder treatment often includes both medications and psychotherapy. This combined approach can help improve the symptoms and teach the affected person skills to cope better with the traumatic event and its aftermath


Medications
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder could improve with many types of medications. Antidepressants could help symptoms of both depression and anxiety. They could also help resolve sleep problems and improve concentration. Anti-anxiety medications could improve feelings of anxiety and stress as well.
When symptoms include recurrent nightmares, a medication known as prazosin might be beneficial. This medication has been used for years in the treatment of hypertension as well as blocking the brain’s reaction to an adrenaline-like brain chemical known as norepinephrine. Prazosin could either reduce or suppress nightmares in several people suffering from PTSD. Depending on specific symptoms and situation, the most suitable medication containing the fewest side effects could be determined. Within a few weeks, an improvement in the mood and other symptoms might be noticed. The doctor should be informed, in the case of experiencing any side effects or problems with the medications.


Psychotherapy
Both children and adults suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder could use several types of therapy. Depending on the symptoms and situation, the most suitable type of therapy could be determined, either by trying one and then a different one in case the first didn’t work or combine elements of several. Additionally, one might try individual therapy, group therapy or both. Group therapy could provide a means to connect to others going similar experiences.
Treatment of PTSD includes the following forms of therapy:


Cognitive Therapy: This kind of talk therapy enables the person to identify and change self-destructive thought (cognitive) patterns.
Exposure Therapy: This behavioral therapy method helps the affected person safely confront whatever is troubling or upsetting them, in order to be able to learn to cope with it in a better way.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): This kind of therapy combines exposure therapy with a series of guided eye movements helping one develop traumatic memories.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Both cognitive and behavior therapies are combined in this kind of therapy to be able to identify unhealthy thoughts and behaviors, and replace them with positive ones.


All these approaches can help the person gaining control of the fear and distress that happen after a traumatic event. The type of therapy that may be best for the patient depends on a number of factors that the person and the health care professional can discuss.
Additionally, medications and psychotherapy could help developed other problems associated with traumatic experience like anxiety, substance abuse, alcohol or depression. It isn’t necessary for the affected person to deal with PTSD on their own.

Prognosis:

Not Available

Expert's opinion

Expert's Name:
Certificate:
Specialty: -

Expert's opinion:

For Specialists

Clinical Trials:

Not Available

 

Latest Drugs:

--

 

Resources:







Forgot your password


sign up

Consultants Corner

Dr. Hani Najjar

Dr. Hani Najjar Pediatrics, Neurology

Dr. Tahsin Martini

Dr. Tahsin Martini Degree status: M.D. in Ophthalmology

Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed

Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed Consultant Ophthalmologist

Dr. Talal Sabouni

Dr. Talal Sabouni UROLOGY AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANT

Samir Moussa M.D.

Samir Moussa M.D. ENT Specialist

Dr. Faisal Dibsi

Dr. Faisal Dibsi Specialist of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy

Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy Pediatrician

Dr . Dirar Abboud

Dr . Dirar Abboud Hepatologist – Gastroenterologist
Poll

Which of the following you are mostly interested in?

Cancer Research
Mental Health
Heart Disease & Diabetes
Sexual Health
Obesity and Healthy Diets
Mother & Child Health

Disclaimer : This site does not endorse or recommend any medical treatment, pharmaceuticals or brand names. More Details