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Disease: Wrinkles Wrinkles
Category: Dermatological diseases

Disease Definition:

The skin gets thinner, drier and less elastic as a person grows older, and it becomes less able to protect itself from damage; wrinkles, lines and creases form in the skin as a result to this. Spending too much time in the sun is a major contributor to wrinkles, despite the fact that genetics are the most important determiner of skin texture. Premature aging of the skin may result from smoking.


People can eliminate or diminish wrinkles in case they are bothered by them. Some of the effective treatments for wrinkles include fillers, surgery, injectables and resurfacing techniques.

Work Group:

Symptoms, Causes


The lines and creases that form in the skin as a person ages are called wrinkles. Wrinkles that become deep crevices or furrows may be especially noticeable around the mouth, neck and eyes.


A person can see a dermatologist in case he/she is concerned about the appearance of their skin. By assessing a person’s skin type and evaluating the condition of the skin, the dermatologist can help a person in creating a personalized skin-care plan and recommend medical wrinkle treatments.


Wrinkles result from a combination of controllable and uncontrollable factors.


Exposure to ultraviolet light:

The primary cause of early wrinkling is ultraviolet radiation, which speeds up the natural aging process in a noticeable way. The connective tissues that lie in the deeper layer of the skin (dermis), collagen and elastin fibers break down due to exposure to ultraviolet lights. The skin loses its strength and flexibility without the supportive connective tissue and begins to sag and wrinkle prematurely as a result of this.



The skin becomes thinner, less elastic and more fragile as a person ages. It also becomes drier and appears more wrinkled as a result of the decreased production of natural oils. Additionally, the fat that is in the deeper layers of the skin that gives it a pump appearance starts to lessen. Loose, saggy skin and more pronounced lines and crevices result from this.



The normal aging process of the skin will be accelerated by smoking, which contributes to wrinkles. Changes in the blood supply to the skin may be the cause of this.


Repeated facial expressions:

Fine lines and wrinkles may be caused by facial movements and expressions, such as smiling or squinting. A groove forms beneath the surface of the skin each time a person uses a facial muscle. These grooves then become permanent features on the face because the skin loses its flexibility as it ages and is no longer able to spring back in place.





Many options can eliminate or at least reduce the appearance of wrinkles. Some of those treatment options are:




Nonprescription wrinkle creams:

The active ingredient or ingredients are in part responsible for the effectiveness of anti-wrinkle creams. Slight to moderate improvements in wrinkles may be noticed with the use of kinetin, copper peptides, retinol, coenzyme Q10, antioxidants and alpha hydroxy acids. However, if these creams produce any results, they will be limited and short-lived because nonprescription wrinkle creams contain lower concentrations of active ingredients.


Topical retinoids:

Fine wrinkles, splotchy pigmentation and skin roughness could be reduced by topical retinoids that are derived from vitamin A. Retinoids can make the skin burn more easily, so they should be used with a skin-care program that includes sunscreen and protective clothing. Two examples of topical retinoids are tazarotene and tretinoin. However, this medication may cause dryness, a burning or tingling sensation, redness and itching.



Wrinkles could be smoothed out with the use of a variety of skin-resurfacing techniques, fillers, injectables and surgical procedures. Each one of these techniques works in a different way and has its own potential side effects and results:



In this procedure, a rapidly rotating brush sands down the surface layer of the skin (planing). The surface of the skin is removed by planing, and a new layer of skin starts growing in its place. For a couple of weeks, the person who underwent this procedure may experience scabbing, swelling and redness. The pinkness will fade and the person will see the desired results in about two months.



Similar to dermabrasion, but only a fine layer of skin is removed in this type of treatment. A vacuum suction is used over the face while aluminum oxide crystals sandblast the skin. The treated areas may be slightly red. In order to maintain the subtle, temporary results, microdermabrasion requires repeated treatments.


Laser, light source and radiofrequency treatments:

The outer layer of skin (epidermis) is destroyed in ablative laser resurfacing, and the underlying skin (dermis) is heated, stimulating the growth of new collagen fibers. A tighter and smoother new skin forms as the wound heals. Fully recovering from ablative laser resurfacing may take up to several months. However, the healing time has been decreased by newer developments in laser technology. There are some treatments that heat the dermis without injuring the epidermis, and cause new collagen and elastin formation; some examples are pulsed light sources, radiofrequency devices and less intense lasers (nonablative lasers). The skin will feel firmer and appear refreshed after several treatments. The treatment needs to be repeated more often and its results are subtle, however, it also requires a shorter recovery time.


Chemical peel:

In order to burn the outer layer of the skin, the doctor will apply an acid to the affected areas. The epidermis and a small portion of the dermis are removed with medium-depth peels; and new skin that is smoother and less wrinkled will form to take its place. Redness may last up to several weeks. In the case of superficial peels, only a portion of the epidermis is removed. A person undergoing this type of therapy may notice less fine wrinkling in the skin and a fading of brown spots after a series of peels.


Soft tissue fillers:

The deeper wrinkles on the face may be injected with soft tissue fillers that include collagen, fat and hyaluronic acid. Giving the skin more volume, these fillers plump and smooth out wrinkles and furrows. However, this procedure may need to be treated every few months and the person undergoing it may experience temporary swelling, redness and bruising.


Botulinum toxin type A:

Also called botulinum toxin, this substance blocks the chemical signals that cause muscles to contract in case it is injected in small doses into specific muscles. However, repeated injections are needed to maintain results because they usually last about three to four months. Some of the places that botulinum toxin works well include crow’s-feet at the corners of the eyes, and the frown lines across the forehead and between the eyebrows.



In a face-lift procedure, the doctor will remove the excess skin and fat in the lower face and neck and then tighten the underlying muscle and connective tissue. Although the recovery time after a face-lift may be quite lengthy and bruising and swelling be noticeable for several weeks after surgery, however, the results of this procedure usually last for five to ten years.


People undergoing any kind of therapy for wrinkles should know that results vary based on how deep the wrinkles are and their location. Additionally, in order to maintain benefits, the treatments mentioned above should be repeated because nothing stops the aging process of the skin. People undergoing any kind of treatment for wrinkles should make sure that their dermatologist or plastic surgeon is specially trained and experienced in the chosen technique. Additionally, any of the procedures mentioned above can have side effects, so people should make sure to discuss them with a doctor before undergoing treatment.


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