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Frontal Lobe Seizures

Definition


Disease: Frontal Lobe Seizures Frontal Lobe Seizures
Category: Neurological diseases
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Disease Definition:

Depending on where the seizures originate in the brain, the signs and symptoms of epliepsy could vary. In the case of frontal lobe seizures which are the seizures that begin in the front part of the brain, they could produce unusual symptoms that could appear to be related to a sleep disorder or a psychiatric problem.

 

Mostly, this type of seizures occurs during sleep and could feature pelvic thrusting and bicycle pedaling motions. During a frontal lobe seizure, some people laugh or scream profanities.

 

Usually, electroencephalograms, which are brain wave tests, might not show the characteristic changes of epileptic seizures in many cases of frontal lobe epilepsy. In most cases, frontal lobe seizures could be controlled by medications, however, when these don't work surgery could be an option.
 

Work Group:


Prepared by: Scientific Section

Symptoms, Causes

Symptoms:

Some of the signs and symptoms of frontal lobe seizures could include:

 

  • Explosive screams or laughter
  • Head and eye deviation to one side
  • Repetitive movements, including bicycle pedaling or rocking.
  • Difficulty speaking, or complete or partial unresponsiveness.
  • Abnormal body posturing, including the extension of one arm while the other flexes, as if the person is posing like a fencer.
     

Causes:

Abnormalities in the brain's frontal lobe, such as traumatic injuries, tumors or vascular malformations could cause frontal lobe seizures. A rare inherited disorder called autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is caused by an abnormal gene. A person will have a 50% chance of inheriting this abnormal gene and developing the disease in case one of their parents has this form of frontal lobe epilepsy. However, most of the time, what causes frontal lobe epilepsy is never known.
 

Complications

Complications:

Usually, frontal lobe seizures occur in clusters and provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus, in which seizure activity lasts much longer than usual. When seizures last more than five minutes, they should be treated as a medical emergency. Sometimes, people experiencing the seizures may be injured due to the motions that occur during frontal lobe seizures.
 

Treatments:

The number of treatment options for people who have frontal lobe seizures has increased over the past decade. In case medications don't work, there are a variety of surgical procedures that could help in addition to the newer types of anti-seizure medications.

 

MEDICATIONS:

Despite the fact that not everyone becomes seizure-free on medication, however, all anti-seizure medications work equally well at controlling frontal lobe seizures. In order to control seizures, the doctor could either try several different types of anti-seizure drugs, or he/she could give a combination of drugs.

 

SURGERY:

A person may be recommended surgery in case their seizures cannot be controlled adequately with medications. These are some of the available surgical options:

 

Isolating the focal point:

A series of cuts could be made to help isolate the section of the brain that is causing seizures in case this portion is too vital to remove. This procedure also prevents seizures from moving into other parts of the brain.

 

Removing the focal point:

Removing a small portion of brain tissue could reduce or eliminate seizures in case the seizures always begin in that portion of the brain.

 

Stimulating the vagal nerve:

In order to stimulate the vagus nerve, a device that is similar to a cardiac pacemaker could be implanted under the skin of the chest. Its wires will be threaded under the patient's skin and wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck. Usually, the number of seizures is reduced by this procedure.
 

Prognosis:

Not available

Expert's opinion

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