Home
My Account
About Us
Forum
Contact us
الواجهة العربية
epharmaweb.com
Medical News Medical News
Aricles Articles
Events Events
Guidelines Guidelines
Videos Library Videos Library
Diseases Diseases
Follow us : facebook twitter Digg Linkedin Boxiz
Newsletter

Please select the categories you are intersted in:
News Articles Guidelines Events Videos Journals' abstracts

Latest Subscribers
Advanced Search »



Platistine

Main

You must sign in to use this servcie


Feedback - Please use the form below to send your query or comment

You must sign in to use this servcie

Username:
Password:

Info

Indications:

Metastatic Testicular Tumors - In established combination therapy with other approved chemotherapeutic agents in patients with metastatic testicular tumors who have already received appropriate surgical and/or radiotherapeutic procedures. Metastatic Ovarian Tumors - In established combination therapy with other approved chemotherapeutic agents in patients with metastatic ovarian tumors who have already received appropriate surgical and/or radiotherapeutic procedures. An established combination consists of cisplatin and cyclophosphamide. Cisplatin, as a single agent, is indicated as secondary therapy in patients with metastatic ovarian tumors refractory to standard chemotherapy who have not previously received cisplatin therapy. Advanced Bladder Cancer - Cisplatin is indicated as a single agent for patients with transitional cell bladder cancer which is no longer amenable to local treatments such as surgery and/or radiotherapy.

Contraindications:

Cisplatin is contraindicated in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Cisplatin should not be employed in myelosuppressed patients, or patients with hearing impairment. Cisplatin is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergic reactions to cisplatin or other platinum-containing compounds

Adverse reactions:

Nephrotoxicity - Dose-related and cumulative renal insufficiency is the major dose-limiting toxicity of cis-platin. Renal toxicity has been noted in 28% to 36% of patients treated with a single dose of 50 mg/m2. It is first noted during the second week after a dose and is manifested by elevations in BUN and creatinine, serum uric acid and/or a decrease in creatinine clearance. Renal toxicity becomes more prolonged and severe with repeated courses of the drug. Renal function must return to normal before another dose of cisplatin can be given. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to nephrotoxicity (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). Impairment of renal function has been associated with renal tubular damage. The administration of cis-platin using a 6- to 8- hour infusion with intravenous hydration, and mannitol has been used to reduce nephrotoxicity. However, renal toxicity still can occur after utilization of these procedures. Ototoxicity -Ototoxicity has been observed in up to 31% of patients treated with a single dose of cisplatin 50 mg/m2, and is manifested by tinnitus and/or hearing loss in the high frequency range (4,000 to 8,000 Hz). Decreased ability to hear normal conversational tones may occur occasionally. Deafness after the initial dose of cisplatin has been reported rarely. Ototoxic effects may be more severe in children receiving cisplatin. Hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral and tends to become more frequent and severe with repeated doses. Ototoxicity may be enhanced with prior or simultaneous cranial irradiation. It is unclear whether cisplatin induced ototoxicity is reversible. Ototoxic effects may be related to the peak plasma concentration of cisplatin. Careful monitoring of audiometry should be performed prior to initiation of therapy and prior to subsequent doses of cisplatin. Vestibular toxicity has also been reported. Ototoxicity may become more severe in patients being treated with other drugs with nephrotoxic potential. Hematologic - Myelosuppression occurs in 25% to 30% of patients treated with cisplatin. The nadirs in circulating platelets and leukocytes occur between days 18 to 23 (range 7.5 to 45) with most patients recovering by day 39 (range 13 to 62). Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are more pronounced at higher doses ( > 50 mg/m2). Anemia (decrease of 2 g hemoglobin/100 mL) occurs at approximately the same frequency and with the same timing as leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Fever and infections have also been reported in patients with neutropenia. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). In addition to anemia secondary to myelosuppression, a Coombs’ positive hemolytic anemia has been reported. In the presence of cisplatin hemolytic anemia, a further course of treatment may be accompanied by increased hemolysis and this risk should be weighed by the treating physician. The development of acute leukemia coincident with the use of cisplatin has rarely been reported in humans. In these reports, cisplatin was generally given in combination with other leukemogenic agents. Gastrointestinal - Marked nausea and vomiting occur in almost all patients treated with cisplatin, and are occasionally so severe that the drug must be discontinued. Nausea and vomiting usually begin within 1 to 4 hours after treatment and last up to 24 hours. Various degrees of vomiting, nausea and/or anorexia may persist for up to 1 week after treatment. Delayed nausea and vomiting (begins or persists 24 hours or more after chemotherapy) has occurred in patients attaining complete emetic control on the day of cisplatin therapy. Diarrhea has also been reported. Other Toxicities Vascular toxicities coincident with the use of cisplatin in combination with other antineoplastic agents have been reported rarely. The events are clinically heterogeneous and may include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, thrombotic microangiopathy (HUS), or cerebral arteritis. Various mechanisms have been proposed for these vascular complications. There are also reports of Raynaud’s phenomenon occurring in patients treated with the combination of bleomycin, vinblastine with or without cisplatin. It has been suggested that hypomagnesemia developing coincident with the use of cisplatin may be an added, although not essential, factor associated with this event. However, it is currently unknown if the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in these cases is the disease, underlying vascular compromise, bleomycin, vin-blastine, hypomagnesemia, or a combination of any of these factors. Serum Electrolyte Disturbances - Hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia have been reported to occur in patients treated with cisplatin and are probably related to renal tubular damage. Tetany has occasionally been reported in those patients with hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. Generally, normal serum electrolyte levels are restored by administering supplemental electrolytes and discontinuing cisplatin. Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome has also been reported. Hyperuricemia - Hyperuricemia has been reported to occur at approximately the same frequency as the increases in BUN and serum creatinine. It is more pronounced after doses greater than 50 mg/m2, and peak levels of uric acid generally occur between 3 to 5 days after the dose. Allopurinol therapy for hyperuricemia effectively reduces uric acid levels. Neurotoxicity (see WARNINGS section) - Neurotoxicity, usually characterized by peripheral neuropathies, has been reported. The neuropathies usually occur after prolonged therapy (4 to 7 months); however, neu-rologic symptoms have been reported to occur after a single dose. Although symptoms and signs of cis-platin neuropathy usually develop during treatment, symptoms of neuropathy may begin 3 to 8 weeks after the last dose of cisplatin, although this is rare. Cisplatin therapy should be discontinued when the symptoms are first observed. The neuropathy, however, may progress further even after stopping treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests peripheral neuropathy may be irreversible in some patients. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to peripheral neuropathy (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). Lhermitte’s sign, dorsal column myelopathy, and autonomic neuropathy have also been reported. Loss of taste and seizures have also been reported. Muscle cramps, defined as localized, painful, involuntary skeletal muscle contractions of sudden onset and short duration, have been reported and were usually associated in patients receiving a relatively high cumulative dose of cisplatin and with a relatively advanced symptomatic stage of peripheral neuropathy. Ocular Toxicity - Optic neuritis, papilledema, and cerebral blindness have been reported infrequently in patients receiving standard recommended doses of cisplatin. Improvement and/or total recovery usually occurs after discontinuing cisplatin. Steroids with or without mannitol have been used; however, efficacy has not been established. Blurred vision and altered color perception have been reported after the use of regimens with higher doses of cisplatin or greater dose frequencies than those recommended in the package insert. The altered color perception manifests as a loss of color discrimination, particularly in the blue-yellow axis. The only finding on funduscopic exam is irregular retinal pigmentation of the macular area. Anaphylactic-like Reactions -Anaphylactic-like reactions have been occasionally reported in patients previously exposed to cisplatin. The reactions consist of facial edema, wheezing, tachycardia, and hypotension within a few minutes of drug administration. Reactions may be controlled by intravenous epinephrine with corticosteriods and/or antihistamines as indicated. Patients receiving cisplatin should be observed carefully for possible anaphylactic-like reactions and supportive equipment and medication should be available to treat such a complication. Hepatotoxicity - Transient elevations of liver enzymes, especially SGOT, as well as bilirubin, have been reported to be associated with cisplatin administration at the recommended doses. Other Events - Other toxicities reported to occur infrequently are cardiac abnormalities, hiccups, elevated serum amylase, and rash. Alopecia, malaise, and asthenia have been reported as part of postmarketing surveillance. Local soft tissue toxicity has rarely been reported following extravasation of cisplatin. Severity of the local tissue toxicity appears to be related to the concentration of the cisplatin solution. Infusion of solutions with a cisplatin concentration greater than 0.5 mg/mL may result in tissue cellulitis, fibrosis, and necrosis. DRUG INTERACTIONS Plasma levels of anticonvulsant agents may become subtherapeutic during cisplatin therapy. In a randomized trial in advanced ovarian cancer, response duration was adversely affected when pyridoxine was used in combination with altretamine (hexamethylmelamine) and cisplatin. and thrombocytopenia. Fever and infections have also been reported in patients with neutropenia. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). In addition to anemia secondary to myelosuppression, a Coombs’ positive hemolytic anemia has been reported. In the presence of cisplatin hemolytic anemia, a further course of treatment may be accompanied by increased hemolysis and this risk should be weighed by the treating physician. The development of acute leukemia coincident with the use of cisplatin has rarely been reported in humans. In these reports, cisplatin was generally given in combination with other leukemogenic agents. Gastrointestinal - Marked nausea and vomiting occur in almost all patients treated with cisplatin, and are occasionally so severe that the drug must be discontinued. Nausea and vomiting usually begin within 1 to 4 hours after treatment and last up to 24 hours. Various degrees of vomiting, nausea and/or anorexia may persist for up to 1 week after treatment. Delayed nausea and vomiting (begins or persists 24 hours or more after chemotherapy) has occurred in patients attaining complete emetic control on the day of cisplatin therapy. Diarrhea has also been reported. Other Toxicities Vascular toxicities coincident with the use of cisplatin in combination with other antineoplastic agents have been reported rarely. The events are clinically heterogeneous and may include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, thrombotic microangiopathy (HUS), or cerebral arteritis. Various mechanisms have been proposed for these vascular complications. There are also reports of Raynaud’s phenomenon occurring in patients treated with the combination of bleomycin, vinblastine with or without cisplatin. It has been suggested that hypomagnesemia developing coincident with the use of cisplatin may be an added, although not essential, factor associated with this event. However, it is currently unknown if the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in these cases is the disease, underlying vascular compromise, bleomycin, vin-blastine, hypomagnesemia, or a combination of any of these factors. Serum Electrolyte Disturbances - Hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia have been reported to occur in patients treated with cisplatin and are probably related to renal tubular damage. Tetany has occasionally been reported in those patients with hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. Generally, normal serum electrolyte levels are restored by administering supplemental electrolytes and discontinuing cisplatin. Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome has also been reported. Hyperuricemia - Hyperuricemia has been reported to occur at approximately the same frequency as the increases in BUN and serum creatinine. It is more pronounced after doses greater than 50 mg/m2, and peak levels of uric acid generally occur between 3 to 5 days after the dose. Allopurinol therapy for hyperuricemia effectively reduces uric acid levels. Neurotoxicity (see WARNINGS section) - Neurotoxicity, usually characterized by peripheral neuropathies, has been reported. The neuropathies usually occur after prolonged therapy (4 to 7 months); however, neu-rologic symptoms have been reported to occur after a single dose. Although symptoms and signs of cis-platin neuropathy usually develop during treatment, symptoms of neuropathy may begin 3 to 8 weeks after the last dose of cisplatin, although this is rare. Cisplatin therapy should be discontinued when the symptoms are first observed. The neuropathy, however, may progress further even after stopping treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests peripheral neuropathy may be irreversible in some patients. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to peripheral neuropathy (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). Lhermitte’s sign, dorsal column myelopathy, and autonomic neuropathy have also been reported. Loss of taste and seizures have also been reported. Muscle cramps, defined as localized, painful, involuntary skeletal muscle contractions of sudden onset and short duration, have been reported and were usually associated in patients receiving a relatively high cumulative dose of cisplatin and with a relatively advanced symptomatic stage of peripheral neuropathy. Ocular Toxicity - Optic neuritis, papilledema, and cerebral blindness have been reported infrequently in patients receiving standard recommended doses of cisplatin. Improvement and/or total recovery usually occurs after discontinuing cisplatin. Steroids with or without mannitol have been used; however, efficacy has not been established. Blurred vision and altered color perception have been reported after the use of regimens with higher doses of cisplatin or greater dose frequencies than those recommended in the package insert. The altered color perception manifests as a loss of color discrimination, particularly in the blue-yellow axis. The only finding on funduscopic exam is irregular retinal pigmentation of the macular area. Anaphylactic-like Reactions -Anaphylactic-like reactions have been occasionally reported in patients previously exposed to cisplatin. The reactions consist of facial edema, wheezing, tachycardia, and hypotension within a few minutes of drug administration. Reactions may be controlled by intravenous epinephrine with corticosteriods and/or antihistamines as indicated. Patients receiving cisplatin should be observed carefully for possible anaphylactic-like reactions and supportive equipment and medication should be available to treat such a complication. Hepatotoxicity - Transient elevations of liver enzymes, especially SGOT, as well as bilirubin, have been reported to be associated with cisplatin administration at the recommended doses. Other Events - Other toxicities reported to occur infrequently are cardiac abnormalities, hiccups, elevated serum amylase, and rash. Alopecia, malaise, and asthenia have been reported as part of postmarketing surveillance. Local soft tissue toxicity has rarely been reported following extravasation of cisplatin. Severity of the local tissue toxicity appears to be related to the concentration of the cisplatin solution. Infusion of solutions with a cisplatin concentration greater than 0.5 mg/mL may result in tissue cellulitis, fibrosis, and necrosis. DRUG INTERACTIONS Plasma levels of anticonvulsant agents may become subtherapeutic during cisplatin therapy. In a randomized trial in advanced ovarian cancer, response duration was adversely affected when pyridoxine was used in combination with altretamine (hexamethylmelamine) and cisplatin. and thrombocytopenia. Fever and infections have also been reported in patients with neutropenia. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). In addition to anemia secondary to myelosuppression, a Coombs’ positive hemolytic anemia has been reported. In the presence of cisplatin hemolytic anemia, a further course of treatment may be accompanied by increased hemolysis and this risk should be weighed by the treating physician. The development of acute leukemia coincident with the use of cisplatin has rarely been reported in humans. In these reports, cisplatin was generally given in combination with other leukemogenic agents. Gastrointestinal - Marked nausea and vomiting occur in almost all patients treated with cisplatin, and are occasionally so severe that the drug must be discontinued. Nausea and vomiting usually begin within 1 to 4 hours after treatment and last up to 24 hours. Various degrees of vomiting, nausea and/or anorexia may persist for up to 1 week after treatment. Delayed nausea and vomiting (begins or persists 24 hours or more after chemotherapy) has occurred in patients attaining complete emetic control on the day of cisplatin therapy. Diarrhea has also been reported. Other Toxicities Vascular toxicities coincident with the use of cisplatin in combination with other antineoplastic agents have been reported rarely. The events are clinically heterogeneous and may include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, thrombotic microangiopathy (HUS), or cerebral arteritis. Various mechanisms have been proposed for these vascular complications. There are also reports of Raynaud’s phenomenon occurring in patients treated with the combination of bleomycin, vinblastine with or without cisplatin. It has been suggested that hypomagnesemia developing coincident with the use of cisplatin may be an added, although not essential, factor associated with this event. However, it is currently unknown if the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in these cases is the disease, underlying vascular compromise, bleomycin, vin-blastine, hypomagnesemia, or a combination of any of these factors. Serum Electrolyte Disturbances - Hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia have been reported to occur in patients treated with cisplatin and are probably related to renal tubular damage. Tetany has occasionally been reported in those patients with hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. Generally, normal serum electrolyte levels are restored by administering supplemental electrolytes and discontinuing cisplatin. Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome has also been reported. Hyperuricemia - Hyperuricemia has been reported to occur at approximately the same frequency as the increases in BUN and serum creatinine. It is more pronounced after doses greater than 50 mg/m2, and peak levels of uric acid generally occur between 3 to 5 days after the dose. Allopurinol therapy for hyperuricemia effectively reduces uric acid levels. Neurotoxicity (see WARNINGS section) - Neurotoxicity, usually characterized by peripheral neuropathies, has been reported. The neuropathies usually occur after prolonged therapy (4 to 7 months); however, neu-rologic symptoms have been reported to occur after a single dose. Although symptoms and signs of cis-platin neuropathy usually develop during treatment, symptoms of neuropathy may begin 3 to 8 weeks after the last dose of cisplatin, although this is rare. Cisplatin therapy should be discontinued when the symptoms are first observed. The neuropathy, however, may progress further even after stopping treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests peripheral neuropathy may be irreversible in some patients. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to peripheral neuropathy (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use). Lhermitte’s sign, dorsal column myelopathy, and autonomic neuropathy have also been reported. Loss of taste and seizures have also been reported. Muscle cramps, defined as localized, painful, involuntary skeletal muscle contractions of sudden onset and short duration, have been reported and were usually associated in patients receiving a relatively high cumulative dose of cisplatin and with a relatively advanced symptomatic stage of peripheral neuropathy. Ocular Toxicity - Optic neuritis, papilledema, and cerebral blindness have been reported infrequently in patients receiving standard recommended doses of cisplatin. Improvement and/or total recovery usually occurs after discontinuing cisplatin. Steroids with or without mannitol have been used; however, efficacy has not been established. Blurred vision and altered color perception have been reported after the use of regimens with higher doses of cisplatin or greater dose frequencies than those recommended in the package insert. The altered color perception manifests as a loss of color discrimination, particularly in the blue-yellow axis. The only finding on funduscopic exam is irregular retinal pigmentation of the macular area. Anaphylactic-like Reactions -Anaphylactic-like reactions have been occasionally reported in patients previously exposed to cisplatin. The reactions consist of facial edema, wheezing, tachycardia, and hypotension within a few minutes of drug administration. Reactions may be controlled by intravenous epinephrine with corticosteriods and/or antihistamines as indicated. Patients receiving cisplatin should be observed carefully for possible anaphylactic-like reactions and supportive equipment and medication should be available to treat such a complication. Hepatotoxicity - Transient elevations of liver enzymes, especially SGOT, as well as bilirubin, have been reported to be associated with cisplatin administration at the recommended doses. Other Events - Other toxicities reported to occur infrequently are cardiac abnormalities, hiccups, elevated serum amylase, and rash. Alopecia, malaise, and asthenia have been reported as part of postmarketing surveillance. Local soft tissue toxicity has rarely been reported following extravasation of cisplatin. Severity of the local tissue toxicity appears to be related to the concentration of the cisplatin solution. Infusion of solutions with a cisplatin concentration greater than 0.5 mg/mL may result in tissue cellulitis, fibrosis, and necrosis.

Interactions:

Plasma levels of anticonvulsant agents may become subtherapeutic during cisplatin therapy. In a randomized trial in advanced ovarian cancer, response duration was adversely affected when pyridoxine was used in combination with altretamine (hexamethylmelamine) and cisplatin.

Warnings:

Peripheral blood counts should be monitored weekly. Liver function should be monitored periodically. Neurologic examination should also be performed regularly (see ADVERSE REACTIONS section). Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility- see WARNINGS section. Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects, Pregnancy Category D- see WARNINGS section. Nursing Mothers - Cisplatin has been reported to be found in human milk; patients receiving cisplatin should not breast feed. Pediatric Use - Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use - Insufficient data are available from clinical trials of cisplatin in the treatment of metastatic testicular tumors or advanced bladder cancer to determine whether elderly patients respond differently than younger patients. In four clinical trials of combination chemotherapy for advanced ovarian carcinoma, 1484 patients received cisplatin either in combination with cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Of these, 426 (29%) were older than 65 years. In these trials, age was not found to be a prognostic factor for survival. However, in a later secondary analysis for one of these trials, elderly patients were found to have shorter survival compared with younger patients. In all four trials, elderly patients experienced more severe neutropenia than younger patients. Higher incidences of severe thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also seen in elderly compared with younger patients, although not in all cisplatin-containing treatment arms. In the two trials where nonhematologic toxicity was evaluated according to age, elderly patients had a numerically higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience suggests that elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression, infectious complications, and nephrotoxicity than younger patients. Cisplatin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and is contraindicated in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and renal function should be monitored.

Form:

INJECTION

Dosage and Administration

You must sign in to use this servcie

Technical Description

You must sign in to use this servcie






Forgot your password


sign up

Consultants Corner

Dr. Tahsin Martini

Dr. Tahsin Martini Degree status: M.D. in Ophthalmology

Samir Moussa M.D.

Samir Moussa M.D. ENT Specialist

Dr . Dirar Abboud

Dr . Dirar Abboud Hepatologist – Gastroenterologist

Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy

Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy Pediatrician

Dr. Faisal Dibsi

Dr. Faisal Dibsi Specialist of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed

Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed Consultant Ophthalmologist

Dr. Hani Najjar

Dr. Hani Najjar Pediatrics, Neurology

Dr. Talal Sabouni

Dr. Talal Sabouni UROLOGY AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANT
Poll

Which of the following you are mostly interested in?

Cancer Research
Mental Health
Heart Disease & Diabetes
Sexual Health
Obesity and Healthy Diets
Mother & Child Health

Disclaimer : This site does not endorse or recommend any medical treatment, pharmaceuticals or brand names. More Details