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Clitaxel

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Indications:

indicated as first-line and subsequent therapy for the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the ovary. As first-line therapy, Paclitaxel is indicated in combination with cisplatin. Paclitaxel is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of node-positive breast cancer administered sequentially to standard doxorubicin-containing combination chemotherapy. In the clinical trial, there was an overall favorable effect on disease-free and overall survival in the total population of patients with receptor-positive and receptor-negative tumors, but the benefit has been specifically demonstrated by available data (median follow-up 30 months) only in the patients with estrogen and progesterone receptor- negative tumors. Paclitaxel is indicated for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline unless clinically contraindicated. Paclitaxel in combination with cisplatin, is indicated for the first-line treatment of non- small cell lung cancer in patients who are not candidates for potentially curative surgery and/or radiation therapy. Paclitaxel is indicated for the second-line treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Contraindications:

History of hypersensitivity (especially macrogol glycerol ricinolate). Patients with baseline neutropenia of <1500 cells/mm3 (<1000 cells/mm3 for kaposi’s sarcoma). Pregnancy and lactation. In kaposi’s sarcoma, contraindicated in patients with concurrent, serious, uncontrolled infections.

Adverse reactions:

Neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, bleeding; hypersensitivity reactions (dyspnoea, flushing, chest pain, tachycardia, rash, hypotension, hypertension); bradycardia, abnormal ECG; neurotoxicity (mainly peripheral neuropathy), myalgia, arthralgia; nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; severe mucositis, alopecia; rarely hepatic necrosis and encephalopathy, inj site reactions e.g. erythema, tenderness, skin discolouration, swelling; interstitial pneumonitis; infections (mainly UTIs and upper respiratory tract); mucosal inflammation, severe elevation in LFTs (aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Potentially Fatal: Infections and infestations leading to death e.g. pneumonia and peritonitis.

Interactions:

Myelosuppression was more profound when given after cisplatin than with the alternate sequence (e.g., paclitaxel before cisplatin). CYP2C8 inducers e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampicin, rifapentine, and secobarbital may reduce levels or effects. CYP2C8 inhibitors e.g. gemfibrozil, ketoconazole, montelukast, and ritonavir may increase levels or effects. CYP3A4 inducers e.g. aminoglutethimide, carbamazepine, nafcillin, nevirapine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and rifamycins may decrease the levels or effects. CYP3A4 inhibitors e.g. azole antifungals, clarithromycin, diclofenac, doxycycline, erythromycin, imatinib, isoniazid, nefazodone, nicardipine, propofol, protease inhibitors, quinidine, telithromycin, and verapamil may increase levels or effects. May increase anthracycline (eg doxorubicin, epirubicin) levels or toxicity; admin of anthracycline at least 24 hr prior to paclitaxel may reduce interaction. May decrease the absorption of cardiac glycosides (may only affect digoxin tablets); levels should be monitored.

Warnings:

Bone marrow suppression during therapy. Monitor cardiac function if conduction abnormalities result. Premedicaton (with corticosteroid, antihistamine and histamine H2-receptor antagonist) may be required to reduce risk of hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue, if severe reactions e.g. hypotension, dyspnoea, angioedema or urticaria occur. Caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Monitor for reactions of admin. Safety and efficacy in paediatric patients have not been established. Administer before platinum derivatives (cisplatin, carboplatin) if used in combination. Hazardous agent; use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal.

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