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Opticilline ®

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Indications:

AMPICILLIN is indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible organisms they include : biliary – tract infections , bronchitis, Endocarditi, epiglottitis, gastro–enteritis (E.coli enteritis, Salmonella enteritis, and shigellosis), gonorrhea, listeriosis, meningitis, otitis media, perinatal streptococcal infections intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococcus, peritonitis, pneumoniae, septicaemia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, and urinary – tract infections .

Contraindications:

Ampicillin is contraindicated in individuals with a history of previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins and in infections caused by penicillinase –producing organisms .

Adverse reactions:

Hypersensitivity reactions especially skin rashes is the most common side effect , other side effects occurs with large I.V doses these include : hemolytic anemia and neutropenia, prolongation of bleeding time and defective platelet function, pseudomembranous colitis, most patients with infectious mononucleosis develop a maculopapular rash treated with ampicillin, also those with lymphatic leukemia appear to be at higher risk too.

Interactions:

Ampicillin may decreases the efficacy of oestrogen –containing oral contraceptives, there may be antagonism between Ampicillin, a bactericidal agent, and bacteriostatic agents such as chloramphenicol, concurrent use of nephrotoxic drugs such as aminoglycoside or potentially ototoxic drugs such as ethacrynic acid and frusemide may increase the risk of toxicity , care is also required if neuromuscular blocking action are given concomitantly . Allopurinol increases skin rash when receving together with Ampicillin.

Warnings:

The possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur, Ampicillin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Ampiral Òin the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Ampicillin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They don’t treat viral infections (e.g. the common cold). As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic function should be made during prolonged therapy. Pregnancy: Studies in animals given doses several times the human dose have revealed no evidence of adverse effects in the fetus. Breast feeding: Ampicillin is secreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Ampicillin is administered to a nursing mother.

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