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Smoking Addiction


 Smoking Addiction

Smoking-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease cause 5 million deaths each year. As a result, the WHO (World Health Organization) has listed tobacco as the second largest cause of death in the world. By 2020, the WHO believes that this figure will double.

Cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco are all included in smoking addiction. However, the most substantial problem within the smoking addiction is smoking cigarettes. Fortunately, there are many ways to help quit smoking, both chemical and natural. Numerous amount of factors may cause an individual to become addicted to smoking, such as:

 

  • Marketing and advertising
  • Social image
  • Family or parental smoking
  • Peer pressure

 

Nicotine ranks as one of the world's most addictive substances and it is also a potent neurotoxin in humans. Nicotine is an authoritative central nervous system stimulant. It increases the creation and release of a wide number of neruotransmitters, including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine, by activating the brain's nicotinic receptors.

 

11,964,000,000 is the number of cigarettes smoked each day. 3,025,509 is the number of deaths caused by smoking this year until now.

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL AIDS FOR TOBACCO, SMOKING AND NICOTINE ADDICTION:

In an effort to lessen the cravings and symptoms of withdrawal, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) involves methods of delivering nicotine into the body at a controlled rate without the tars, toxins and cancer-causing substances that are found in tobacco products. NHRTs typically require patients to stop using all nicotine products due to fear of nicotine overdose.

 

Most tobacco users who desire to quit their nicotine addiction can benefit from NRT, which is considered useful and safe. Listed below are some examples of pharmacological aids for tobacco:

 

Gum:

Delivers nicotine to the bloodstream through the blood vessels found in the mouth (transbuccal).

 

Nasal spray:

Delivers nicotine to the bloodstream through the nasal cavity.

 

Inhaler:

The inhaler delivers nicotine to the bloodstream through the lungs.

 

Patch:

Through a transdermal patch applied to the skin, the patch delivers nicotine to the bloodstream.

 

Lozenge:

Delivers nicotine to the bloodstream through the blood vessels found in the mouth (transbuccal).

 

Sublingual tablet:

Delivers nicotine to the bloodstream through the blood vessels found in the mouth (transbuccal).

 

NICOTINE WITHDRAWAL:

Some of the symptoms that nicotine withdrawal may cause are:

 

  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Insomnia
  • Cravings to smoke
  • Gas, stomach pain, constipation
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Fatigue
  • Postnasal drip
  • Dry mouth
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Sore tongue and/or gums
  • Irritability
  • Headache

 

MEDICAL TREATMENTS FOR TOBACCO, SMOKING AND NICOTINE ADDICTION:

To help adults quit their smoking and/or nicotine addictions, there are many medical treatments. Some examples are:

 

Varenicline:

It is an orally administered prescription medication that is especially designed to help adults quit smoking. This medication blocks nicotine's ability to attach to nicotinic receptors because it binds to some of the same nicotinic receptors in the brain as does nicotine. Any licensed physician can prescribe this medication. Varenicline does not contain nicotine.

 

Bupropion hydrochloride:

This orally administered prescription medication doesn't contain nicotine. It has been found to help adults quit smoking. Until now, professionals don't know how or even why this medication has proven effective for some people to quit smoking. Any licensed physician can prescribe this medication.

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Prepared By: Dr. Mehyar Al-Khashroum
Edited By: Miss  Araz Kahvedjian


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